By Laurent Dubois
The 1st and simply profitable slave revolution within the Americas all started in 1791 while hundreds of thousands of brutally exploited slaves rose up opposed to their masters on Saint-Domingue, the main ecocnomic colony within the eighteenth-century Atlantic international. inside of many years, the slave insurgents compelled the French directors of the colony to emancipate them, a choice ratified by means of progressive Paris in 1794. This victory used to be a gorgeous problem to the order of master/slave family members through the Americas, together with the southern usa, reinforcing the main fervent hopes of slaves and the worst fears of masters. yet, peace eluded Saint-Domingue as British and Spanish forces attacked the colony. A charismatic ex-slave named Toussaint Louverture got here to France's relief, elevating armies of others like himself and defeating the invaders. eventually Napoleon, fearing the large political strength of Toussaint, despatched an enormous challenge to overwhelm him and subjugate the ex-slaves. After many battles, a decisive victory over the French secured the beginning of Haiti and the everlasting abolition of slavery from the land. The independence of Haiti reshaped the Atlantic international by means of resulting in the French sale of Louisiana to the USA and the growth of the Cuban sugar economic climate. Laurent Dubois weaves the tales of slaves, loose humans of African descent, filthy rich whites, and French directors into an unforgettable story of rebel, battle, heroism, and victory. He establishes the Haitian Revolution as a foundational second within the historical past of democracy and human rights. (20040323)
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Additional info for Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution
The map is drawn with North to the left. Courtesy of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. cultivation was much more important in this region than in the north, involving over 1,800 plantations. There were more than 500 cotton plantations and more than 800 coffee plantations. 41 On a long peninsula to the south and west was the Southern Province, whose capital was Les Cayes. It was both cut off from the Western Province and divided internally by the highest mountains in the colony—indeed in the Caribbean.
Indeed, over the course of the eighteenth century, local legislation as well as new royal legislation reversed many of its key provisions, particularly those relating to the status of emancipated slaves. 49 In the mid-1780s reform-minded administrators in the Colonial Ministry in Paris, driven in part by reports of small uprisings on plantations, passed two royal decrees meant to improve the condition of the slaves in the Caribbean. Many of their provisions were aimed at curbing the autonomy of plantation managers—and therefore their power to abuse their slaves—by requiring them to keep careful registers of the work and production on the plantations.
These colonies both depended on and drove the expansion of the emerging capitalist system of the Atlantic world. 24 Slavery was deemed essential to the production of sugar. In the Caribbean, plantations often had several hundred slaves carrying out the difﬁcult tasks of planting and harvesting cane, and a smaller group specializing in its transformation into sugar. Once harvested, cane must be processed quickly, and during certain periods work continued all night. The highly diversiﬁed and industrialized sugar plantations of Saint-Domingue 18 av e n g e r s o f t h e n e w w o r l d and its nearby British competitor Jamaica had some of the largest numbers of slaves of any colonies in the Americas.
Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution by Laurent Dubois