By F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster
In this research, an outline is gifted of agricultural rules on manure and minerals, in relation to the Nitrate Directive to therapy over the top floor- and groundwater infection from extensive agricultural practices. Six international locations belonging to the eu Union have been studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the uk. The guidelines and their criminal incorporation have been regarding agricultural and environmental stipulations in each one kingdom. furthermore, a list used to be made from agricultural mineral poli cies within the usa and Canada. stipulations for cattle farming in North the USA range significantly from these in Europe, yet their suggestions shed a unique mild on eu guidelines. examine has proven that there are nonetheless very massive mineral surpluses in lots of international locations and areas. In either the Netherlands and within the Flemish a part of Belgium, present difficulties as a result of very excessive degrees of manure creation are structural instead of neighborhood and can't simply be solved via delivery of manure to different areas. To a lesser volume. Germany, Denmark and comparatively small elements of France (Brittany) and the uk, nonetheless exceed the norms for an equilibrium fertilization. In Denmark, latest difficulties can most likely be solved in the present legislative framework. The Netherlands, Flanders. a number of German Lander (Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein) and Brittany.
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Additional resources for Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures
L,50 Dfi. 5,Dfi. I,50 * Levy amounts for 2000 are tentative and may be altered after evaluation 41 farmers agree to implement certain measures in the interest of nature conservation. Nine classes of management agreements are recognized, with their own level of compensation. EFFECT OF MEASURES Little is known about the environmental effects of all these efforts on the part of the Dutch government to reduce emissions of phosphate and nitrate to surface water and reduce leaching of nitrate to groundwater.
The acceptable loss norms will also be lowered, which means that after 2000 norms will be lowered and levies will go up, incentives for more substantial reductions. Experiments are being considered with integrated environmental licences, in order to reduce the burden of regulation, both on farmers and on the government. In selected municipalities, manure and ammonia regulations may be temporarily lifted and replaced by environmental licences. Farmers with a good environmental management record, would receive such a licence, which covers ammonia emissions, manure distribution, mineral ledger and pesticide use.
1995 el 48 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS In February 1997, policy was decided for the next 10 years, with the stipulation that there will be an evaluation in two years (2000), after which adjustments can be made. The proposed measures have so far met with a lot of resistance from farmers' organizations. The measures that have been decided on are, therefore, less stringent than the original proposals, in order to facilitate the acceptance of the new MINAS system by farmers. Consequently, the levies that will have to be paid between 1998 and 2000 will be low.
Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures by F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster