By Nicholas Capaldi
During this ebook, unique philosophers debate the most debatable public coverage problems with the overdue twentieth century. every one starts off by means of creating a case for or opposed to affirmative motion, laying out the main arguments on either side. each one writer then responds to the other's essay. Written in an attractive, obtainable sort, Affirmative motion is a wonderful textual content for junior point philosophy, political conception, public coverage, and African-American stories classes in addition to a advisor for execs navigating this crucial debate.
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Thus, minority set-asides had not been demonstrated to be necessary to eliminating the low participation rate. The Court held that in order to pass the test of strict scrutiny, a direct causal link had to be established between a specific present injury and specific past or present acts of racial discrimination. O'Connor admitted that government had a compelling interest in preventing the use of government funds to support and perpetuate private discrimination. But, she held for the majority, there was no demonstration that lack of Black participation in city construction work was the specific effect of racial discrimination.
Prior rejection was not a necessary condition of an individual's receiving a remedy, for discrimination had been directed at Blacks as a group and not at specific individuals who merely happened to be Black. Rather, goals were meant to integrate Blacks into the workforce in the proportion that would have been had discrimination not occurred. " 33 The Supreme Court upheld the hiring goal and rejected the contention that Title VII limited relief to the actual victims of discrimination. Race-conscious relief furthered the intent of making employment opportunities available that had formerly been closed to minorities and reserved for Whites.
This requirement was attacked by conservatives as imposing a "racial quota," a charge that reverberates in the contemporary debate concerning affirmative action. With the Montgomery bus boycotts of the mid-1950s, Blacks initiated an era of nonviolent direct action to publicly protest unjust laws and practices that supported racial discrimination. The graphic portrayals of repression and violence produced by the civil rights movement precipitated a national revulsion against the unequal treatment of African Americans.
Affirmative Action by Nicholas Capaldi