By Gaëlle Krikorian, Amy Kapczynski
On the finish of the 20 th century, highbrow estate rights collided with daily life. Expansive copyright legislation and electronic rights administration applied sciences sought to close down new sorts of copying and remixing made attainable via the web. overseas legislation increasing patent rights threatened the lives of thousands of individuals around the globe dwelling with HIV/AIDS by means of proscribing their entry to reasonable popular medicinal drugs. for many years, governments have tightened the grip of highbrow estate legislations on the bidding of knowledge industries; yet lately, teams have emerged worldwide to problem this wave of enclosure with a brand new counter-politics of "access to knowledge" or "A2K." They contain software program programmers who took to the streets to defeat software program patents in Europe, AIDS activists who pressured multinational pharmaceutical businesses to allow copies in their drugs to be bought in terrible nations, subsistence farmers protecting their rights to meals safety or entry to agricultural biotechnology, and school scholars who created a brand new "free culture" move to shield the electronic commons. Access to wisdom within the Age of highbrow Property maps this rising box of activism as a sequence of historic moments, techniques, and ideas. It gathers probably the most vital thinkers and advocates within the box to make the stakes and techniques at play during this new area seen and the phrases of highbrow estate legislations intelligible of their political implications around the globe. an artistic Commons variation of this paintings can be freely to be had online.
Contributors: Ahmed Abdel Latif, Philippe Aigrain, Jeffrey Atteberry, Yochai Benkler, Yann Moulier Boutaing, Carlos Correa, Laura DeNardis, Sarah Deutsch, Peter Drahos, Hala Essalmawi, Rick Falkvinge, Sean Flynn, Vera Franz, Spring Gombe, Anil Gupta, Ellen 't Hoen, Charles Igwe, Eddan Katz, Kannikar Kijtiwatchakul, Gaëlle Krikorian, Lawrence Liang, Jiraporn Limpananont, James Love, Leena Menghaney, Viviana Munoz, Sisule F. Musungu, HeeSeob Nam, Chan Park, Eloan Pinheiro dos Santos, Achal Prabhala, Onno Purbo, Manon Ress, Caroline Rossini, Susan promote, Sangeeta Shashikant, Roberto Verzola, Jo Walsh
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In other words, we cannot isolate and locate credit, labor, or value for creative endeavors in any individual or set of individuals. The maxim can also be understood as an insistence that the thing being “summed”—here, the creative endeavor—happens not within individuals, but among a group. This is an insistence on the generativity of the crowd, on the notion that there is a creative and productive force that resides between, rather than within individuals—or more radically, in the infrastructure of their connection, in the network itself.
They argue that drug company donation programs are unacceptable because they leave power over life in the hands of private actors, who retain the privilege of charity, the privilege to make good on their promises or not. Overriding patents is cast as a way to insist instead on values of participation and accountability. The demand for access to medicines, like the call for free software, thus places the concept of democracy at the center of the A2K movement and opposes it to the despotic dominion conception of intellectual property.
Thus, we have a pharmaceutical R&D system that prioritizes drugs for baldness and erectile dysfunction over lifesaving treatments for ailments such as tuberculosis and malaria. They also point out that patents can create barriers to research and thus interfere with innovation—and argue that they are particularly likely to do so where poor patients are concerned. They point out, for example, that multinational companies that make AIDS drugs were unwilling to undertake the negotiations that would have been needed to combine the multiple drugs needed for the HIV cocktail into a single pill that would be easier for patients to take.
Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property by Gaëlle Krikorian, Amy Kapczynski