Download A Handbook of Management Techniques: A Comprehensive Guide by Michael Armstrong PDF

By Michael Armstrong

ISBN-10: 0749447664

ISBN-13: 9780749447663

Consultant to trendy thoughts in all fields of administration; perfect significant other for pro managers, in addition to an important reference e-book for company and administration scholars. comprises over a hundred systematic and analytical equipment used to aid in decision-making and to enhance potency and effectiveness.

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Extra info for A Handbook of Management Techniques: A Comprehensive Guide to Achieving Managerial Excellence and Improved Decision Making

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Calculate the standard variable cost per unit. 2. Calculate the fixed cost per unit (the running expenses, including administration and selling expenses of the business over a period of time divided by the number of units to be sold in that period. Pricing ᔡ 21 Again, this approach is also used in manufacturing and takes no account of demand. Marginal pricing Marginal pricing fixes the selling price of additional units by reference to the marginal cost of manufacturing each unit. The theory of marginal pricing is that, after a company’s total fixed and variable costs have been covered by the existing volume of production, the cost of producing an extra unit – of marginal production – will only be the total variable cost of producing and selling it.

The product is still in demand until a substitute appears, when sales may decline dramatically. The plateau may incline slightly upwards, however, if sales increase at a rate in line with growth in the economy. 4 The plateau cycle PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS Product life-cycle analysis is the process of assessing the type of life cycle which is applicable to the product, the point in the life cycle where the product is, and the reasons why it is in this position. For existing company products, the analysis provides a basis for forecasts of future sales and for deciding on recycling actions.

Mail order Mail order relies on catalogues to obtain sales, often using agents to administer orders and collect payment for a commission. There are also Distribution ᔡ 39 specialist mail-order houses that deal with a limited range of lines that are difficult to access in shops (such as specialist garden care materials). Noncatalogue mail order depends on magazine and television advertising and is normally used to sell a restricted or specialist range of products. LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management, also known as physical distribution management, is concerned with obtaining materials from suppliers and storing, processing, retrieving and delivering products to the customer.

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A Handbook of Management Techniques: A Comprehensive Guide to Achieving Managerial Excellence and Improved Decision Making by Michael Armstrong

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